The International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs Initiative on Adherence to Antiretrovirals’s (INRUD-IAA) previous study of 24 systems of care providing antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda showed that practices in monitoring rates of antiretroviral treatment adherence and defaulting were inconsistent. Stakeholders recommended standardizing methods to monitor and measure adherence and defaulting and developed a series of indicators and potential determinants to test.
In 2006, the International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs Initiative on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (INRUD-IAA), in collaboration with the national AIDS control programs from Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, carried out a survey that assessed how existing ART programs and health care facilities tracked patient adherence and treatment defaulting. ART programs had started in Uganda as early as 1991, in Rwanda 1999, Kenya 2001, Ethiopia 2003 and Tanzania 2004. However, the survey showed that many programs and facilities had no processes in place to measure treatment adherence or defaulting at either the patient or program level, and among those facilities that did conduct measurements, definitions and data collection practices varied widely, although they routinely collected useful data.